According to George Cowgill of Arizona State University, the spheres are a fascinating find: "Pyrite was certainly used by the Teotihuacanos and other ancient Mesoamerican societies. The main monuments of the city of Teotihuacan are connected to each other by a central road of 45 meters wide and a length of 2 kilometres, called "Avenue of the Dead " (Avenida de los Muertos), because it is believed to have been paved with tombs. The second phase also saw the construction of an altar atop of the pyramid which has not survived into modern times. Facing west, the pyramid is 216 feet/66 meters high and the largest structure in Teotihuacan. Read our guide about the. [19] Teotihuacan was the largest urban center of Mesoamerica before the Aztecs, almost 1000 years prior to their epoch. So I’m quite inclined to believe that these Bosnian pyramids are real and especially with the latest evidence which emerged last summer. Notably absent from the city are fortifications and military structures. There are two equinoxes during the year: The spring equinox, sometimes called “vernal equinox,” which falls around March 20th, and the autumn equinox which falls around September 23rd. The sculptures inside palatial structures, such as Xalla, were shattered. It is believed that the later exponential growth of Teotihuacan's population was due to the subsequent migration of those displaced by the eruption. It’s located in the northern part of the Causeway of the Dead. This discovery, therefore,  presents quite a conundrum. Additionally, Teotihuacan exported fine obsidian tools that are found throughout Mesoamerica. [36] Some think this suggests that the burning was from an internal uprising. A small opening in the tunnel wall was made and the scanner captured the first images, 37 meters into the passage. [5] The city may have lasted until sometime between the 7th and 8th centuries CE, but its major monuments were sacked and systematically burned around 550 CE. The talud-tablero style disseminated through Mesoamerica generally from the end of the Preclassic period, and not specifically, or solely, via Teotihuacano influence. Polynesian Styled Water Chalets In Malaysia (West Coast), Travel light as there is plenty of walking and climbing to do, Carry water it gets hot and you get thirsty. Climbing up the Pyramid of the Moon is only allowed up-to the first level, with very very steep steps. This is from a geologist who has been contributing his skills to the dig there. The Pyramid of the Sun was built almost 2,000 years ago and is the most important structure within the Archaeological Ensemble of Teotihuacan, being located in the center of the Causeway of the Dead, between the Pyramid of the Moon to the north and The Citadel in the south. It’s like a portal that can connect you with the creation. [90] Some of the pecked-cross circles also resemble an ancient Aztec game called, patolli. Magnificent, Monumental, Memorable Mexico City! This began in the city of Teotihuacan. Archaeologist Veronica Ortega of the National Institute of Anthropology and History states that the city appears to have actually been named "Teohuacan", meaning "City of the Sun" rather than "City of the Gods", as the current name suggests.[12]. Period III lasted from the year 350 to 650 CE and is the so-called classical period of Teotihuacan, during which the city reached the apogee of its influence in Mesoamerica. It showed that Teotichuacan was a multiethnic city that was broken up into areas of different ethnicities and workers. The employees of obsidian laboratories amounted to at least 12% of the total population, according to reliable assessments of archaeologists and the multitude of archaeological findings. No ancient Teotihuacano non-ideographic texts are known to exist (or known to have existed). During this era Teotihuacan exhibited explosive growth that caused it to be the largest metropolis in Mesoamerica. They are indeed unique, but I have no idea what they mean. 19–47. Teotihuacan is characterized by the vast size of their monuments, in particular, the. They all have axes that are in line with the city structures of the region. These layers, superimposed, resemble anest of boxes. More than 12,000 years ago, our ancestors that were living about 20 kilometres north-west of Sarajevo in present-day Bosnia engineered a complex of pyramids out of agglomerated concrete. Because all of these sites showed burning, archaeologists concluded that the whole city was burned. [48] Based on the wear of teeth archaeologists were able to determine that some bodies worked with fibers with their frontal teeth, insinuating that they were involved with making nets, like those depicted in mural art. Later burials are all different, but with the same purpose: The sacrifices were important to control people, to convince them to do what their rulers wanted. This is very interesting because in nature this would be impossible. The Ciudadela is a great enclosed compound capable of holding 100,000 people. [74] Although scholars long thought this to be a natural cave, more recent examinations have established the tunnel was entirely manmade. Variants of the generic style are found in a number of Maya region sites, including Tikal, Kaminaljuyu, Copan, Becan, and Oxkintok, and particularly in the Petén Basin and the central Guatemalan highlands. December 17, 2012, Learn how and when to remove this template message, National Institute of Anthropology and History, Temple of the Feathered Serpent Quetzalcoatl, List of archaeoastronomical sites by country, "Mexico's Teotihuacan ruins may have been 'Teohuacan,,, Naachtun’s Stela 24 and the Entrada of 378, David Stuart, 2014, Teotihuacan: An Exceptional Multiethnic City in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico, "Sacrificial Burial Deepens Mystery At Teotihuacan, But Confirms The City's Militarism", "Cooperation and tensions in multiethnic corporate societies using Teotihuacan, Central Mexico, as a case study", Terrence Kaufman, "Nawa linguistic prehistory", Tunnel under Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent under exploration in 2010, Teotihuacan tunnel – entrance located. “Clay is made from very fine grains. As one of the most powerful cultural centers in Mesoamerica, Teotihuacan extended its cultural and artistic influence throughout the region, and even beyond. The name Teōtīhuacān was given by the Nahuatl-speaking Aztecs centuries after the fall of the city around 550 CE. [72], Further excavations at the Ciudadela were carried out in the 1920s, supervised by Manuel Gamio. The Citadel contains multiple elite residential complexes and is dominated by the Temple of Quetzalcoatl. After the fall of the city, various squatters lived on the site. Obsidian came mainly from the mines of Pachuca (Teotihuacan) and its processing was the most important industry in the city, which had acquired the monopoly in the trade of obsidian in the broader Middle American region. The mestizo genes push them to celebrate pre-hispanic events although sometimes they do not know their true meaning. @media only screen and (min-device-width : 320px) and (max-device-width : 480px) { Archaeologists use ground-probing radar along the Ravne tunnel [Credit: ArcheoRivista]. At 14 meters deep, the entrance leads to a nearly 100-meter long corridor that ends in a series of underground galleries in the rock. During this period, Teotihuacan began to grow into a city as farmers working on the hillside of the Teotihuacan Valley began to move down into the valley, coalescing around the abundant springs of Teotihuacan. The Pyramid of the Moon is the second tallest structure in the city (after the Pyramid of the Sun). New discoveries have suggested that Teotihuacan was not much different in its interactions with other centers from the later empires, such as the Toltec and Aztec. Pyramid of the Sun, Pyramid of the Moon, Temple of Quetzalcoatl, The Citadel and many smaller pyramids. You have presented probably the best case I have seen to date. They are all created with a small hammer-like device that produces cuplike markings that are 1 centimetre in diameter and 2 centimetres apart. Malmström (1978, p. 105) gives an estimate of 50,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. Méx. [77][78], One of the most remarkable findings in the tunnel chambers was a miniature mountainous landscape, 17 metres underground, with tiny pools of liquid mercury representing lakes. When departing, take the exit directly across from the Pyramid of the Sun.